The process of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy or vice versa is known as electromechanical Conversion. Electromechanical Energy Conversion involves the interchange of energy through the medium of a coupling electric field or magnetic field between an electrical system and a mechanical system. It consists of important three parts an electrical system, a mechanical system and a coupling field (electric or magnetic). let’s see the below block diagram to understand the basics of electromechanical energy conversion. In the figure below if we go from left to right, it shows the conversion from electrical to mechanical whereas if we go from right to left it represents the conversion from mechanical to electrical .

I) Electric Field as a Medium for Coupling:

When an electric field is used as a medium, electromechanical energy conversion can occur. Let us consider two positively charged plates of a capacitor separated by a dielectric material. A force of attraction exists between these plates, causing them to move together. We turn electrical energy into mechanical energy by allowing one plate to move in the direction of the force. Conversely, by applying an outside push to one plate and attempting to widen the space between them, we are transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy.

ii) Magnetic field as coupling medium:

When the magnetic field is used as the medium, electromechanical energy conversion is also more effective. Consider a current-carrying conductor that is placed in a magnetic field. There will be some force acting on the conductor. The magnetic field aids in the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy when the conductor is free to move in the direction of the magnetic force. This is the basic operating principle of all electric motors. Mechanical energy is turned into electrical energy when an external force is supplied to a conductor to move it in the opposite direction of the magnetic force. This is the basis for the generator operation. Remember that the magnetic field serves as a channel for energy conversion in both circumstances.